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7-December -2023

1. PM hails Garba's inscription on the UNESCO Intangible Heritage List.

Topic: GS1 – art and culture


  • Prime Minister Narendra Modi expresses joy over the inclusion of Gujarat’s Garba on UNESCO’s Intangible Heritage List.
  • In a post on social media platform X, the Prime Minister highlights Garba as a celebration of life, unity, and Indian traditions.
  • He sees the UNESCO recognition as a showcase of the beauty of Indian culture to the world.

About Garba:

  • Origin: Gujarat, India
  • Meaning: Derived from the Sanskrit word “Garbha”, meaning womb or creation of life
  • Celebration: Performed during Navratri, a nine-night Hindu festival celebrating the divine feminine
  • Dance style: Circular,with participants moving in a clockwise direction around a central lit lamp or image of the goddess Shakti
  • Music: Energetic and rhythmic, featuring drums, dholkis, and traditional Gujarati instruments
  • Costumes: Women wear vibrantly colored chaniya cholis (long skirts and blouses) and odhanis (veils), while men wear kurtas and turbans
  • Steps: Simple and repetitive, allowing people of all ages and abilities to participate
  • Significance: Represents devotion to the goddess Shakti, promotes community spirit, and celebrates life and creation


2. Government is working on new technologies such as Small Nuclear Reactors to make clean energy transition

Topic: GS3 – clean energy


  • The Government is actively exploring new technologies, including Small Nuclear Reactors, to facilitate a transition to clean energy.
  • Jitendra Singh, Union Minister of State for Science & Technology, Atomic Energy, and Space, provided this information in a written reply in the Lok Sabha.

More information on this news:

  • Nuclear power is recognized globally as a promising clean energy option for power generation, aiming to reduce dependence on fossil fuels.
  • Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) are being emphasized, known for modularity, scalability, small footprint, and improved safety.
  • SMRs are seen as an attractive option for repurposing retiring coal-based thermal power station sites, providing an opportunity to generate low-carbon electricity.
  • Deployment of SMRs, especially in locations unsuitable for large nuclear plants, is considered to help in moving away from fossil fuel consumption.
  • SMRs are not intended to replace conventional large-sized nuclear power plants, which serve as base load plants.
  • Strict regulatory measures are in place for nuclear power plants to ensure safety and contain radiation, with considerations for emergency planning zones and public acceptance.
  • The techno-commercial aspects of SMRs are still in the early stages globally, and large-scale deployment depends on factors such as regulatory harmonization by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).
  • India is actively considering steps for the development of Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) as part of its commitment to a clean energy transition, especially for reliable and continuous power supply in industrial decarbonization.


3. South Eastern Coalfields Ltd to use “Miyawaki” Plantation Method to Enhance Green Cover

Topic: GS3 – climate action.


  • Coal India Ltd subsidiary, South Eastern Coalfields Ltd (SECL), aims to enhance forest cover in Chhattisgarh’s coal belt region.

Additional information on this new:

  • SECL will employ the Miyawaki method, a popular Japanese afforestation technique, for the first time in its operational areas.
  • Over a two-year period, about 20,000 saplings will be planted using the Miyawaki technique.
  • The plantation will feature a mix of big plants such as Bargad, Peepal, Aam, Jamun, medium plants like Karanj, Amla, Ashok, and small plants such as Kaner, Gudhal, Trikoma, Ber, Anjeer, Nimbu, etc.
  • This initiative aligns with efforts to promote sustainable practices and ecological balance in coal mining areas.
  • The project reflects a commitment to environmental conservation and demonstrates the application of innovative afforestation methods in industrial landscapes.


What is Miyawaki method:

  • Miyawaki Method: A Japanese afforestation technique developed by botanist Akira Miyawaki.
  • Dense Planting: Involves planting a variety of native plant species in a small, compact space, creating a dense and multilayered forest.
  • Biodiversity: Maximizes biodiversity and ecological benefits by imitating natural forests, promoting faster growth and self-sustainability.
  • Quick Growth: Plants reach maturity in a shorter time, facilitating faster carbon sequestration and ecosystem development.
  • Adaptability: Suited for urban areas and degraded lands, the method enhances green cover and contributes to environmental conservation.


4. Schemes sponsored by NCDC

Topic: GS2 – Government initiatives

National Co-operative Development Corporation (NCDC) Objective:

  • Promote, strengthen, and develop farmer cooperatives for increased production, productivity, and post-harvest facilities.
  • Focus on agricultural marketing, processing, storage, cold chain, and supply of seeds, fertilizers, and other inputs.
  • Special emphasis on non-farm sectors like dairy, livestock, handloom, sericulture, poultry, fishery, scheduled caste & scheduled tribes, and women cooperatives.

NCDC Sponsored Schemes:


  • Supports newly formed cooperative societies with innovative ideas.
  • Linked to a Cooperative Start-up and Innovation Fund created by NCDC.


  • Comprehensive approach covering healthcare, education, and holistic health systems.


  • Aims to improve socio-economic status of women through women cooperatives.


  • Focuses on financial assistance for cooperative dairy businesses and ESG-linked activities.


  • Aligned with Digital India, provides financial assistance for digitally empowered cooperatives.

Other Central Schemes Implemented by NCDC:

  • Agri Infrastructure Fund, Agricultural Marketing Infrastructure, Mission for Integrated Development of Horticulture, PM Matsya Sampada Yojana, PM Formalisation of Micro Food Processing Enterprises, PM ‘Formation and Promotion of 10,000 FPOs’ scheme, Fisheries & Aquaculture Infrastructure Development Fund.

Various Activities Assisted by NCDC:

  • Marketing, processing, storage, cold chain, distribution of consumer articles, industrial cooperatives, credit & service cooperatives, agricultural services, district plan schemes, cooperatives for weaker sections, assistance for computerization, and promotional and developmental programs.


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